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中华人民共和国银行业监督管理法 (中英对照)           ★★★

中华人民共和国银行业监督管理法 (中英对照)

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中华人民共和国主席令
 
第11号


 
《中华人民共和国银行业监督管理法》已由中华人民共和国第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议于2003年12月27日通过,现予公布,自2004年2月1日起施行。


中华人民共和国主席 胡锦涛
 二○○三年十二月二十七日


中华人民共和国银行业监督管理法


 目 录
第一章 总 则
 第二章 监督管理机构
 第三章 监督管理职责
 第四章 监督管理措施
 第五章 法律责任
 第六章 附 则
 


第一章 总 则


 第一条 为了加强对银行业的监督管理,规范监督管理行为,防范和化解银行业风险,保护存款人和其他客户的合法权益,促进银行业健康发展,制定本法。
 第二条 国务院银行业监督管理机构负责对全国银行业金融机构及其业务活动监督管理的工作。
 本法所称银行业金融机构,是指在中华人民共和国境内设立的商业银行、城市信用合作社、农村信用合作社等吸收公众存款的金融机构以及政策性银行。
 对在中华人民共和国境内设立的金融资产管理公司、信托投资公司、财务公司、金融租赁公司以及经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准设立的其他金融机构的监督管理,适用本法对银行业金融机构监督管理的规定。
 国务院银行业监督管理机构依照本法有关规定,对经其批准在境外设立的金融机构以及前二款金融机构在境外的业务活动实施监督管理。
 第三条 银行业监督管理的目标是促进银行业的合法、稳健运行,维护公众对银行业的信心。
 银行业监督管理应当保护银行业公平竞争,提高银行业竞争能力。
 第四条 银行业监督管理机构对银行业实施监督管理,应当遵循依法、公开、公正和效率的原则。
 第五条 银行业监督管理机构及其从事监督管理工作的人员依法履行监督管理职责,受法律保护。地方政府、各级政府部门、社会团体和个人不得干涉。
 第六条 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当和中国人民银行、国务院其他金融监督管理机构建立监督管理信息共享机制。
 第七条 国务院银行业监督管理机构可以和其他国家或者地区的银行业监督管理机构建立监督管理合作机制,实施跨境监督管理。
 


第二章 监督管理机构


 第八条 国务院银行业监督管理机构根据履行职责的需要设立派出机构。国务院银行业监督管理机构对派出机构实行统一领导和管理。
 国务院银行业监督管理机构的派出机构在国务院银行业监督管理机构的授权范围内,履行监督管理职责。
 第九条 银行业监督管理机构从事监督管理工作的人员,应当具备与其任职相适应的专业知识和业务工作经验。
 第十条 银行业监督管理机构工作人员,应当忠于职守,依法办事,公正廉洁,不得利用职务便利牟取不正当的利益,不得在金融机构等企业中兼任职务。
 第十一条 银行业监督管理机构工作人员,应当依法保守国家秘密,并有责任为其监督管理的银行业金融机构及当事人保守秘密。
 国务院银行业监督管理机构同其他国家或者地区的银行业监督管理机构交流监督管理信息,应当就信息保密作出安排。
 第十二条 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当公开监督管理程序,建立监督管理责任制度和内部监督制度。
 第十三条 银行业监督管理机构在处置银行业金融机构风险、查处有关金融违法行为等监督管理活动中,地方政府、各级有关部门应当予以配合和协助。
 第十四条 国务院审计、监察等机关,应当依照法律规定对国务院银行业监督管理机构的活动进行监督。
 


第三章 监督管理职责


 第十五条 国务院银行业监督管理机构依照法律、行政法规制定并发布对银行业金融机构及其业务活动监督管理的规章、规则。
 第十六条 国务院银行业监督管理机构依照法律、行政法规规定的条件和程序,审查批准银行业金融机构的设立、变更、终止以及业务范围。
 第十七条 申请设立银行业金融机构,或者银行业金融机构变更持有资本总额或者股份总额达到规定比例以上的股东的,国务院银行业监督管理机构应当对股东的资金来源、财务状况、资本补充能力和诚信状况进行审查。
 第十八条 银行业金融机构业务范围内的业务品种,应当按照规定经国务院银行业监督管理机构审查批准或者备案。需要审查批准或者备案的业务品种,由国务院银行业监督管理机构依照法律、行政法规作出规定并公布。
 第十九条 未经国务院银行业监督管理机构批准,任何单位或者个人不得设立银行业金融机构或者从事银行业金融机构的业务活动。
 第二十条 国务院银行业监督管理机构对银行业金融机构的董事和高级管理人员实行任职资格管理。具体办法由国务院银行业监督管理机构制定。
 第二十一条 银行业金融机构的审慎经营规则,由法律、行政法规规定,也可以由国务院银行业监督管理机构依照法律、行政法规制定。
 前款规定的审慎经营规则,包括风险管理、内部控制、资本充足率、资产质量、损失准备金、风险集中、关联交易、资产流动性等内容。
 银行业金融机构应当严格遵守审慎经营规则。
 第二十二条 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当在规定的期限,对下列申请事项作出批准或者不批准的书面决定;决定不批准的,应当说明理由:
 (一) 银行业金融机构的设立,自收到申请文件之日起六个月内;
 (二) 银行业金融机构的变更、终止,以及业务范围和增加业务范围内的业务品种,自收到申请文件之日起三个月内;
 (三) 审查董事和高级管理人员的任职资格,自收到申请文件之日起三十日内。
 第二十三条 银行业监督管理机构应当对银行业金融机构的业务活动及其风险状况进行非现场监管,建立银行业金融机构监督管理信息系统,分析、评价银行业金融机构的风险状况。
 第二十四条 银行业监督管理机构应当对银行业金融机构的业务活动及其风险状况进行现场检查。
 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当制定现场检查程序,规范现场检查行为。
 第二十五条 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当对银行业金融机构实行并表监督管理。
 第二十六条 国务院银行业监督管理机构对中国人民银行提出的检查银行业金融机构的建议,应当自收到建议之日起三十日内予以回复。
 第二十七条 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当建立银行业金融机构监督管理评级体系和风险预警机制,根据银行业金融机构的评级情况和风险状况,确定对其现场检查的频率、范围和需要采取的其他措施。
 第二十八条 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当建立银行业突发事件的发现、报告岗位责任制度。
 银行业监督管理机构发现可能引发系统性银行业风险、严重影响社会稳定的突发事件的,应当立即向国务院银行业监督管理机构负责人报告;国务院银行业监督管理机构负责人认为需要向国务院报告的,应当立即向国务院报告,并告知中国人民银行、国务院财政部门等有关部门。
 第二十九条 国务院银行业监督管理机构应当会同中国人民银行、国务院财政部门等有关部门建立银行业突发事件处置制度,制定银行业突发事件处置预案,明确处置机构和人员及其职责、处置措施和处置程序,及时、有效地处置银行业突发事件。
 第三十条 国务院银行业监督管理机构负责统一编制全国银行业金融机构的统计数据、报表,并按照国家有关规定予以公布。
 第三十一条 国务院银行业监督管理机构对银行业自律组织的活动进行指导和监督。
 银行业自律组织的章程应当报国务院银行业监督管理机构备案。
 第三十二条 国务院银行业监督管理机构可以开展与银行业监督管理有关的国际交流、合作活动。
 


第四章 监督管理措施


 第三十三条 银行业监督管理机构根据履行职责的需要,有权要求银行业金融机构按照规定报送资产负债表、利润表和其他财务会计、统计报表、经营管理资料以及注册会计师出具的审计报告。
 第三十四条 银行业监督管理机构根据审慎监管的要求,可以采取下列措施进行现场检查:
 (一) 进入银行业金融机构进行检查;
 (二) 询问银行业金融机构的工作人员,要求其对有关检查事项作出说明;
 (三) 查阅、复制银行业金融机构与检查事项有关的文件、资料,对可能被转移、隐匿或者毁损的文件、资料予以封存;
 (四) 检查银行业金融机构运用电子计算机管理业务数据的系统。
 进行现场检查,应当经银行业监督管理机构负责人批准。现场检查时,检查人员不得少于二人,并应当出示合法证件和检查通知书;检查人员少于二人或者未出示合法证件和检查通知书的,银行业金融机构有权拒绝检查。
 第三十五条 银行业监督管理机构根据履行职责的需要,可以与银行业金融机构董事、高级管理人员进行监督管理谈话,要求银行业金融机构董事、高级管理人员就银行业金融机构的业务活动和风险管理的重大事项作出说明。
 第三十六条 银行业监督管理机构应当责令银行业金融机构按照规定,如实向社会公众披露财务会计报告、风险管理状况、董事和高级管理人员变更以及其他重大事项等信息。
 第三十七条 银行业金融机构违反审慎经营规则的,国务院银行业监督管理机构或者其省一级派出机构应当责令限期改正;逾期未改正的,或者其行为严重危及该银行业金融机构的稳健运行、损害存款人和其他客户合法权益的,经国务院银行业监督管理机构或者其省一级派出机构负责人批准,可以区别情形,采取下列措施:
 (一) 责令暂停部分业务、停止批准开办新业务;
 (二) 限制分配红利和其他收入;
 (三) 限制资产转让;
 (四) 责令控股股东转让股权或者限制有关股东的权利;
 (五) 责令调整董事、高级管理人员或者限制其权利;
 (六) 停止批准增设分支机构。
 银行业金融机构整改后,应当向国务院银行业监督管理机构或者其省一级派出机构提交报告。国务院银行业监督管理机构或者其省一级派出机构经验收,符合有关审慎经营规则的,应当自验收完毕之日起三日内解除对其采取的前款规定的有关措施。
 第三十八条 银行业金融机构已经或者可能发生信用危机,严重影响存款人和其他客户合法权益的,国务院银行业监督管理机构可以依法对该银行业金融机构实行接管或者促成机构重组,接管和机构重组依照有关法律和国务院的规定执行。
 第三十九条 银行业金融机构有违法经营、经营管理不善等情形,不予撤销将严重危害金融秩序、损害公众利益的,国务院银行业监督管理机构有权予以撤销。
 第四十条 银行业金融机构被接管、重组或者被撤销的,国务院银行业监督管理机构有权要求该银行业金融机构的董事、高级管理人员和其他工作人员,按照国务院银行业监督管理机构的要求履行职责。
 在接管、机构重组或者撤销清算期间,经国务院银行业监督管理机构负责人批准,对直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员,可以采取下列措施:
 (一) 直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员出境将对国家利益造成重大损失的,通知出境管理机关依法阻止其出境;
 (二) 申请司法机关禁止其转移、转让财产或者对其财产设定其他权利。
 第四十一条 经国务院银行业监督管理机构或者其省一级派出机构负责人批准,银行业监督管理机构有权查询涉嫌金融违法的银行业金融机构及其工作人员以及关联行为人的账户;对涉嫌转移或者隐匿违法资金的,经银行业监督管理机构负责人批准,可以申请司法机关予以冻结。
 


第五章 法律责任


 第四十二条 银行业监督管理机构从事监督管理工作的人员有下列情形之一的,依法给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:
 (一) 违反规定审查批准银行业金融机构的设立、变更、终止,以及业务范围和业务范围内的业务品种的;
 (二) 违反规定对银行业金融机构进行现场检查的;
 (三) 未依照本法第二十八条规定报告突发事件的;
 (四) 违反规定查询账户或者申请冻结资金的;
 (五) 违反规定对银行业金融机构采取措施或者处罚的;
 (六) 滥用职权、玩忽职守的其他行为。
 银行业监督管理机构从事监督管理工作的人员贪污受贿、泄露国家秘密或者所知悉的商业秘密,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不构成犯罪的,依法给予行政处分。
 第四十三条 擅自设立银行业金融机构或者非法从事银行业金融机构的业务活动的,由国务院银行业监督管理机构予以取缔;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不构成犯罪的,由国务院银行业监督管理机构没收违法所得,违法所得五十万元以上的,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款;没有违法所得或者违法所得不足五十万元的,处五十万元以上二百万元以下罚款。
 第四十四条 银行业金融机构有下列情形之一,由国务院银行业监督管理机构责令改正,有违法所得的,没收违法所得,违法所得五十万元以上的,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚款;没有违法所得或者违法所得不足五十万元的,处五十万元以上二百万元以下罚款;情节特别严重或者逾期不改正的,可以责令停业整顿或者吊销其经营许可证;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:
 (一) 未经批准设立分支机构的;
 (二) 未经批准变更、终止的;
 (三) 违反规定从事未经批准或者未备案的业务活动的;
 (四) 违反规定提高或者降低存款利率、贷款利率的。
 第四十五条 银行业金融机构有下列情形之一,由国务院银行业监督管理机构责令改正,并处二十万元以上五十万元以下罚款;情节特别严重或者逾期不改正的,可以责令停业整顿或者吊销其经营许可证;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:
 (一) 未经任职资格审查任命董事、高级管理人员的;
 (二) 拒绝或者阻碍非现场监管或者现场检查的;
 (三) 提供虚假的或者隐瞒重要事实的报表、报告等文件、资料的;
 (四) 未按照规定进行信息披露的;
 (五) 严重违反审慎经营规则的;
 (六) 拒绝执行本法第三十七条规定的措施的。
 第四十六条 银行业金融机构不按照规定提供报表、报告等文件、资料的,由银行业监督管理机构责令改正,逾期不改正的,处十万元以上三十万元以下罚款。
 第四十七条 银行业金融机构违反法律、行政法规以及国家有关银行业监督管理规定的,银行业监督管理机构除依照本法第四十三条至第四十六条规定处罚外,还可以区别不同情形,采取下列措施:
 (一) 责令银行业金融机构对直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员给予纪律处分;
 (二) 银行业金融机构的行为尚不构成犯罪的,对直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员给予警告,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款;
 (三) 取消直接负责的董事、高级管理人员一定期限直至终身的任职资格,禁止直接负责的董事、高级管理人员和其他直接责任人员一定期限直至终身从事银行业工作。
 


第六章 附 则


 第四十八条 对在中华人民共和国境内设立的政策性银行、金融资产管理公司的监督管理,法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。
 第四十九条 对在中华人民共和国境内设立的外资银行业金融机构、中外合资银行业金融机构、外国银行业金融机构的分支机构的监督管理,法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。
 第五十条 本法自2004年2月1日起施行。
 
    全国人民代表大会常务委员会 2003年12月27日 颁布

 

Order of the President of the People's Republic of China
 
No.12


 
The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Modifying the "Law of the People's Republic of China on the People's Bank of China", which was adopted at the sixth session of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on December 27, 2003, is now promulgated, and shall be implemented as of February 1, 2004.


Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China
 December 27, 2003


The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Modifying the "Law of the People's Republic of China on the People's Bank of China"


 
It is decided at the sixth session of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress to make the following modifications on the Law of the People's Republic of China on the People's Bank of China:
 I. Article 1 shall be modified as "This Law is hereby formulated for the purpose of establishing the status of the People's Bank of China (PBC), clarifying its functions, ensuring the correct enactment and implementation of the state monetary policies, and establishing and perfecting a macro-control system through the central bank, as well as maintaining the stability of the banking industry".
 II. Paragraph 2 of Article 2 shall be modified as "The People's Bank of China shall, under the guidance of the State Council, formulate and implement monetary policies, prevent and dissolve financial risks, and maintain the stability of the banking industry in the country".
 III. Paragraph 1 of Article 4 shall be modified as "The People's Bank of China shall perform the following functions:
1. Promulgating and implementing orders and regulations in relation to its functions;
2. Formulating and implementing monetary policies in accordance with the law;
3. Issuing Renminbi (RMB) and control its circulation;
4. Supervising the inter-bank borrowing or lending markets and inter-bank bonds markets;
 5. Administering foreign exchange, and supervising inter-bank foreign exchange market;
 6. Supervising gold market;
 7. Holding, controlling and managing the state foreign exchange reserve and gold reserve;
8. Managing the state treasury;
9. Maintaining the normal operation of the systems for payments and settlements of accounts;
 10. Directing and disposing the anti-money-laundering work of the financial industry, being responsible for capital supervision and measurement over anti-money-laundering;
 11. Being responsible for the statistics, investigation, analysis, and forecasting of the financial industry;
12. Undertaking the relevant international banking operations as the central bank of the state; and
13. Other functions assigned to it by the State Council."
IV. Article 6 shall be modified as "The People's Bank of China shall submit a report on monetary policies and operation of the financial industry to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress".
V. One Article shall be added as Article 9, that is, "The State Council shall establish a financial supervision and administration coordination mechanism, and shall formulate the specific measures for it".
 VI. Article 11 shall be changed into Article 12, and one paragraph shall be added as paragraph 2, that is, "The monetary policy committee of the PBC shall play an important role in the state macro-control, and in the formulation and adjustment of monetary policies".
 VII. Article 12 shall be changed into Article 13, which shall be modified as "The PBC shall, upon the need of performing its functions, establish branches as its representative organs, and exercise centralized and unified leadership and control over these branches.
 The branches of the PBC shall, upon the authorization of the PBC, be responsible for maintaining the stability of financial industry and handling the relevant business operations in the areas under their respective jurisdictions".
 VIII. Article 14 shall be changed into Article 15, and shall be modified as "The governor, deputy governors and other staff of the PBC shall keep state secrets according to law and have the duty to keep secrets of the banking institutions and the clients in relation to their performance of functions".
 IX. Article 22 shall be changed into Article 23, of which item (1) of paragraph 1 shall be modified as "demanding that the banking institutions deposit the reserve fund at a required ratio"; and item (3) thereof shall be modified as "handling rediscounting for the banking institutions, which have opened accounts in the PBC"; and item (5) thereof shall be modified as "dealing in treasury bonds, other government bonds, financial bonds and foreign exchange on the open market".
 X. Article 25 shall be changed into Article 26, which is modified as "The PBC may open accounts for banking institutions as needed, but may not overdraw the accounts of the banking institutions".
 XI. Article 26 shall be changed into Article 27, which is modified as "The PBC shall organize or assist in organizing banking institutions in settling inter-institutional accounts, coordinate the activities and provide services thereof. The PBC shall set down specific procedures for such operation.
 The PBC shall formulate rules for settlement of payment together with the banking regulatory organ of the State Council".
 XII. Article 30 shall be changed into Article 31, which is modified as "The PBC shall make supervision and inspection over the operation of financial market, and implement macro-control on financial market, so as to promote its harmonious development".
 XIII. Article 31 shall be cancelled.
 XIV. Article 32 shall be modified as "The PBC shall have the right to make inspection and supervision over the following acts of the financial institutions, other entities or individuals:
 1. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on the management of reserve against deposit;
 2. Acts in relation to the special loans of the PBC;
 3. Acts of implementing the provisions on Renminbi control;
 4. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on the management of the inter-bank borrowing or lending markets and the inter-bank bonds markets;
 5. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on foreign exchange control;
 6. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on gold management;
 7. Acts on behalf of the PBC of managing the state treasury;
 8. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on settlement management; and
9. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on anti-money-laundering.
 The special loans as mentioned in the preceding paragraph, refer to the loans used for special purpose, which are determined by the State Council and issued to financial institutions by the PBC".
 XV. One Article shall be added as Article 33, that is, "The PBC may, for implementing the monetary policy and maintaining the stability of the finance, suggest that the banking regulatory organ of the State Council make inspection and supervision over banking institutions. And the banking regulatory organ of the State Council shall give a reply within 30 days upon receiving the suggestion".
 XVI. One Article shall be added as Article 34, that is, "Where a banking institution has difficulty in payment, which may give rise to financial risks, the PBC may, upon the approval of the State Council, have the right to make inspection and supervision over the banking institution to maintain financial stability".
 XVII. Article 33 shall be changed into Article 35, which is modified as "The PBC may, for performing its functions, have the right to require the banking institutions to submit the necessary balance sheet, statements of profits and other financial and statistical reports and materials.
 The PBC shall, together with the banking regulatory organ of the State Council, and other financial supervision and administration organs of the State Council, establish the supervision and administration information sharing mechanism".
 XVIII. Article 35 shall be cancelled.
 IXX. Article 39 shall be changed into Article 40, which is modified as "The PBC shall manage its revenues and expenditures and accounting affairs in accordance with laws, administrative regulations, and the uniform financial and accounting systems of the state, and shall be subject to the respective auditing and supervision of the audit organs and the financial departments of the State Council in accordance with the law".
 XX. Article 41 shall be changed into Article 42, which is modified as "Anyone who illegally prints or mints Renminbi, sells counterfeit or illegally printed or minted Renminbi, or knowingly transports counterfeit money or illegally printed or minted money, which constitutes a crime, shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities according to law. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be punished by the public security organs with a detention of no more than 15 days and a fine of no more than RMB 10,000 Yuan".
 XXI. Article 42 shall be changed into Article 43, which is modified as "Anyone who buys counterfeit or altered Renminbi or knowingly holds or uses counterfeit or altered or illegally printed or minted Renminbi, which constitutes a crime, shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be punished by the public security organs with a detention of no more than 15 days and a fine of no more than RMB 10,000 Yuan".
 XXII. Article 45 shall be changed into Article 46, which is modified as "If any act listed in Article 32 of this Law is in violation of the relevant provisions, penalties shall be imposed according to the provisions on punishment in the relevant laws and administrative regulations if any. If there isn't any provision on punishment, the PBC shall, in accordance with the different circumstances, give warnings, confiscate illegal gains if any, and impose a fine of one time up to five times of the illegal gains in case the illegal gains are more than RMB 500,000 Yuan; and impose a fine of RMB 500,000 Yuan up to RMB 2 million Yuan, if there are no illegal gains or the illegal gains are less than RMB 500,000 Yuan. The directors and senior management personnel directly responsible and other persons directly liable shall be given a warning, or imposed upon a fine of RMB 50,000 Yuan up to RMB 500,000 Yuan. In case a crime is constituted, the criminal liability shall be prosecuted for according to law".
 XXIII. Article 49 shall be changed into Article 50, which is modified as "If any functionary of the PBC divulges any state or commercial secret he acquires, which is serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities according to law. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be subject to administrative punishments according to law".
 XXIV. Article 50 shall be changed into Article 51, which is modified as "If any functionary of the PBC commits embezzlement, bribery, malpractices for personal gains, abuse of powers, or neglect of duties, which constitutes a crime, he shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities according to law. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be subject to administrative punishments according to law".
 XXV. One Article shall be added as Article 52, that is, "The banking institutions as mentioned in this Law, refer to the commercial banks, urban credit cooperatives, rural credit cooperatives, and other financial institutions and policy banks absorbing public deposits.
 The provisions of this Law on banking institutions shall be applicable to the financial capital management companies, trust and investment companies, finance companies, and financial leasing companies, which are established within the territory of China, and other financial institutions established upon the approval of the banking regulatory organ of the State Council".
 This Decision shall be implemented as of February 1, 2004.
 The Law of the People's Republic of China on the People's Bank of China shall be modified in accordance with this Decision, and the order of the clauses thereof shall also be adjusted accordingly, and this modified Law shall be announced again.
 
Annex:
 


Law of the People's Republic of China on the People's Bank of China


 Contents
Chapter I General Provisions
Chapter II Organization
Chapter III Renminbi
Chapter IV Business Operation
Chapter V Supervision and Control over the Banking Industry
 Chapter VI Finance and Accounting
Chapter VII Legal Liabilities Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions
 


Chapter I General Provisions


Article 1 This Law is hereby formulated for the purpose of establishing the status of the People's Bank of China (PBC), clarifying its functions, ensuring the correct enactment and implementation of the state monetary policies, and establishing and perfecting a macro-control system through the central bank, as well as maintaining the stability of banking industry.
Article 2 The PBC is the central bank of the People's Republic of China.
 As the central bank, the PBC shall formulate and implement monetary policies, prevent and dissolve financial risks, and maintain the stability of banking industry in the country under the leadership of the State Council.
 Article 3 The aim of monetary policies is to maintain the stability of the value of currency and thereby promote economic growth.
 Article 4 The PBC shall perform the following functions:
1. Promulgating and implementing orders and regulations in relation to its functions;
2. Formulating and implementing monetary policies in accordance with the law;
3. Issuing Renminbi (RMB) and control its circulation;
 4. Supervising the inter-bank borrowing or lending market and inter-bank bonds markets;
 5. Administering foreign exchange, and supervising inter-bank foreign exchange market;
 6. Supervising gold market;
 7. Holding, controlling and managing the state foreign exchange reserve and gold reserve;
8. Managing the state treasury;
9. Maintaining the normal operation of the systems for payments and settlements of accounts;
 10. Directing and disposing the anti-money-laundering work of the financial industry, being responsible for capital supervision and measurement over anti-money-laundering;
 11. Being responsible for the statistics, investigation, analysis, and forecasting of the financial industry;
12. Undertaking the relevant international banking operations as the central bank of the state; and
 13. Other functions assigned to it by the State Council.
 In order to implement monetary policies, the PBC may carry out financial operations in accordance with the relevant provisions of Chapter IV of this Law.
Article 5 The PBC shall report to the State Council its decisions concerning the annual supply of currency, interest rates, foreign exchange rates, and other major issues specified by the State Council for approval before implementation.
 The PBC shall, after making decisions on matters concerning monetary policies other than those as specified in the preceding paragraph, carry them out immediately, and then report them to and put them on record at the State Council.
Article 6 The PBC shall submit to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress a report on monetary policies and the operation of the financial industry.
Article 7 The PBC shall, under the guidance of the State Council, independently implement monetary policies, perform its functions and carry out its operations according to law free from any intervention of local governments, departments of governments at all levels, public organizations or individuals.
Article 8 All capital of the PBC shall be allocated by the state and owned by the state.
Article 9 The State Council shall establish a financial supervision and administration coordination mechanism, and shall formulate the specific measures for it.


Chapter II Organization


Article 10 The PBC shall have one governor and a certain number of deputy governors.
 The governor of PBC shall be nominated by the Premier of the State Council, and affirmed by the National People's Congress for the post. Whereas the National People's Congress is not in session, he or she shall be affirmed by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and appointed or removed by the president of the People's Republic of China for the post. The deputy governors of the PBC shall be appointed or removed by the Premier of the State Council.
Article 11 The PBC shall institute a system in which the governor assumes the full responsibility. The governor shall direct the work of the PBC and the deputy governors shall assist the governor in his or her work.
Article 12 The PBC shall establish a monetary policy committee whose functions, composition and working procedures shall be prescribed by the State Council and reported to and put on records at the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
 The monetary policy committee of the PBC shall play an important role in the state macro-control, and in the formulation and adjustment of monetary policies.
 Article 13 The PBC shall, upon the need of performing its functions, establish branches as its representative organs, and exercise centralized and unified leadership and control over these branches.
 The branches of the PBC shall, upon the authorization of the PBC, be responsible for maintaining the stability of financial industry and handling the relevant business operations in the areas under their respective jurisdictions.
Article 14 The governor, deputy governors and other staff of the PBC shall be diligent in performing their functions, and may not abuse their power and conduct malpractice for gaining private interests, or hold posts concurrently in any other banking institution, enterprise or foundation.
Article 15 The governor, deputy governors and other staff of the PBC shall keep state secrets according to law and have the duty to keep secrets of the banking institutions and the clients in relation to their performance of functions.


Chapter III Renminbi


Article 16 The legal tender of the PBC is Renminbi (RMB). Renminbi shall be used for repaying all public or private debts according to its face value within the territory of the People's Republic of China, and no organization or individual may refuse to accept.
Article 17 The basic unit of Renminbi is Yuan and the units of fractional currency of Renminbi are Jiao and Fen.
Article 18 Renminbi shall be printed, minted and issued uniformly by the PBC.
 When issuing new Renminbi, the PBC shall make a public announcement of the issuing date, face values, designs, patterns and specifications of the new.
 Article 19 Any counterfeiting, altering or illegal printing or minting of the Renminbi is prohibited. Any selling or buying of the counterfeit or altered Renminbi is prohibited. Transportation, possession or use of the counterfeit, altered or illegally printed or minted Renminbi is prohibited. Deliberate damaging of Renminbi is prohibited. Illegal use of the design of Renminbi in propaganda materials, publications or other commodities is prohibited.
 Article 20 No entity or individual may print or issue promissory notes as substitutes for Renminbi to circulate on the open market.
Article 21 The damaged or soiled Renminbi shall be exchanged in accordance with the regulations of the PBC, and the PBC shall be responsible for collecting and destroying the aforesaid Renminbi.
 Article 22 The PBC shall establish a Renminbi issuing treasury, and its branches shall establish subsidiary issuing treasuries. The subsidiary issuing treasuries shall, in allocating Renminbi issuing funds, act on the order of allocation from their superior treasury. No entity or individual may use the issuing fund in violation of the relevant regulations.
 


Chapter IV Business Operations


Article 23 The PBC may use the following instruments to implement the monetary policies:
 1. Demanding that the banking institutions deposit the reserve fund at a required ratio;
 2. Fixing the base interest rates of the central bank;
 3. Handling rediscounting for the banking institutions, which have opened accounts in the PBC;
4. Providing loans for commercial banks;
 5. Dealing in treasury bonds, other government bonds, financial bonds and foreign exchange on the open market; and
 6. Other monetary policy instruments as determined by the State Council.
 The PBC may work out the specific conditions and procedures when applying the monetary policy instruments set forth in the preceding clauses to implement monetary policies.
Article 24 The PBC shall manage the state treasury in accordance with laws and administrative regulations.
 Article 25 The PBC may issue and exchange treasury bonds and other government bonds to financial institutions on behalf of the financial departments of the State Council.
Article 26 The PBC may open accounts for banking institutions as needed, but may not overdraw the accounts of the banking institutions.
Article 27 The PBC shall organize or assist in organizing banking institutions in settling inter-institutional accounts, coordinate the activities and provide services thereof. The PBC shall set down specific procedures for such operation.
 The PBC shall formulate rules for settlement of payment together with the banking regulatory organs of the State Council.
 Article 28 The PBC may, for the implementation of monetary policies, determine the amounts, repayment schedules, rates of interest and modes of loans to commercial banks, but the time limit for such loans shall not exceed one year.
Article 29 The people's bank is prohibited from overdrawing the financial budget of the government or from directly subscribing to or acting as sole sales agent for treasury bonds and other government bonds.
 Article 30 The PBC is prohibited from providing loans for the local governments or departments of governments at all levels, non-bank financial institutions and other entities or individuals, and may provide loans for non-bank financial institutions specially permitted by the State Council.
 The PBC shall not act as financial guarantor for any entity or individual.
Chapter V Supervision and Control over the Banking Industry
Article 31 The PBC shall make supervision and inspection over the operation of financial market, and implement macro-control on financial market, so as to promote its harmonious development.
 Article 32 The PBC shall have the right to make inspection and supervision over the following acts of the financial institutions, other entities or individuals:
 1. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on the management of reserve against deposit;
 2. Acts in relation to the special loans of the PBC;
 3. Acts of implementing the provisions on Renminbi management;
 4. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on the management of the inter-bank borrowing or lending market and the inter-bank bonds markets;
 5. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on foreign exchange control;
 6. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on gold management;
 7. Acts on behalf of the PBC of managing the state treasury;
 8. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on settlement management; and
9. Acts of implementing the relevant provisions on anti-money-laundering.
 The special loans as mentioned in the preceding paragraph, refer to the loans used for special purpose, which are determined by the State Council and issued to financial institutions by the PBC.
 Article 33 The PBC may, for implementing the monetary policy and maintaining the stability of the finance, suggest that the banking regulatory organ of the State Council make inspection and supervision over banking institutions. And the banking regulatory organ of the State Council shall give a reply within 30 days upon receiving the suggestion.
 Article 34 Where a banking institution has difficulty in payment, which may give rise to financial risks, the PBC may, upon the approval of the State Council, have the right to make inspection and supervision over the banking institution to maintain financial stability.
 Article 35 The PBC may, for performing its functions, have the right to require the banking institutions to submit the necessary balance sheet, statements of profit and other finance and accounting reports and materials.
 The PBC shall, together with the banking regulatory organ of the State Council, and other financial supervision and administration organs of the State Council, establish the supervision and administration information sharing mechanism.
 Article 36 The PBC shall be responsible for compiling comprehensive statistics and accounting statements for the national banking system and publishing them in accordance with the relevant provisions of the state.
 Article 37 The PBC shall establish and perfect auditing and checking systems for and strengthen its control over the banking system.
 


Chapter VI Finance and Accounting


Article 38 The PBC shall exercise independent control over its financial budget.
 The budget of the PBC shall be included in the central budget after it has been examined and verified by the financial departments of the State Council, and shall be supervised by the financial departments of the State Council for the purpose of implementing the budget.
 Article 39 The PBC shall turn in all of its net profit to the state treasury from its income of every fiscal year minus annual expenditures after withdrawing its general reserve funds at a proportion determined by the financial department of the State Council.
 Losses of the PBC shall be setoff by allocations of the central finance.
 Article 40 The PBC shall manage its revenues and expenditures and accounting affairs in accordance with laws, administrative regulations, and the uniform financial and accounting systems of the state, and shall be subject to the respective auditing and supervision of the audit organs and the financial departments of the State Council in accordance with the law.
 Article 41 The PBC shall, within 3 months after the end of each fiscal year, complete the compiling of balance sheets, statement of profit and loss and the relevant finance and accounting report forms, prepare its annual report and publish them in accordance with the relevant state regulations.
 The fiscal year of the PBC shall begin from January 1 to December 31 of the Gregorian calendar.
 


Chapter VII Legal Liabilities


Article 42 Anyone who illegally prints or mints Renminbi, sells counterfeit or illegally printed or minted Renminbi, or knowingly transports counterfeit money or illegally printed or minted money, which constitutes a crime, shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities according to law. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be punished by the public security organs with a detention of no more than 15 days and a fine of no more than RMB 10,000 Yuan.
Article 43 Anyone who buys counterfeit or altered Renminbi or knowingly holds or uses counterfeit or altered or illegally printed or minted Renminbi, which constitutes a crime, shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be punished by the public security organs with a detention of no more than 15 days and a fine of no more than RMB 10,000 Yuan.
 Article 44 In the case that anyone illegally uses the design of Renminbi in propaganda materials, publications or other commodities, the PBC shall order him to make corrections and destroy the illegally used design of Renminbi, confiscate any illegal gains and impose a fine of no more than RMB 50,000 Yuan.
 Article 45 If anyone prints or sells promissory notes as substitutes for Renminbi for circulation on the open market, the PBC shall order him to cease the illegal practice and impose on him a fine of no more than RMB 200,000 Yuan.
 Article 46 If any act listed in Article 32 of this Law is in violation of the relevant provisions, penalties shall be imposed according to the provisions on punishment in the relevant laws and administrative regulations if any. If there isn't any provision on punishment, the PBC shall, in accordance with the different circumstances, give warnings, confiscate illegal gains if any, and impose a fine of one time up to five times of the illegal gains in case the illegal gains are more than RMB 500,000 Yuan; and impose a fine of RMB 500,000 Yuan up to RMB 2 million Yuan if there are no illegal gains or the illegal gains are less than RMB 500,000 Yuan. The directors and senior management personnel directly responsible and other persons directly liable shall be given a warning, or imposed upon a fine of RMB 50,000 Yuan up to RMB 500,000 Yuan. In case a crime is constituted, the criminal liability shall be prosecuted for according to law.
Article 47 In case a party refuses to accept the decisions on administrative penalties, he may institute an administrative action in accordance with the "Administrative Procedures Law of the People's Republic of China".
 Article 48 If the PBC commits any of the following acts, the person directly in charge and other persons directly liable shall be subject to administrative punishment. If a crime is constituted, he shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities:
 1. Providing loans in violation of the provisions of paragraph one of Article 30 of this Law;
 2. Acting as a guarantor to entities or individuals; and
 3. Using the currency issuing fund without authorization.
 In case of any one of the acts as prescribed in the preceding clause, which causes losses, the person directly in charge and other persons directly liable shall bear part or all of the liabilities for compensation.
 Article 49 Where the local governments, the departments of the governments at all levels, public organizations or individuals coerce the PBC and its functionaries into providing loans or guarantee in violation of Article 30 of this Law, the person directly in charge and other persons directly liable shall be subject to administrative punishments in accordance with the law. If a crime is constituted, the criminal liabilities of the relevant persons shall be prosecuted for according to law, and they shall bear part or all of the liabilities for compensation for any losses.
Article 50 If any functionary of PBC divulges any state or commercial secret he acquires, which is serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities according to law. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be subject to administrative punishments according to law.
Article 51 If any functionary of the PBC commits embezzlement, bribery, malpractices for personal gains, abuse of powers, or neglect of duties, which constitutes a crime, he shall be prosecuted for criminal liabilities according to law. If the circumstances are not serious enough to constitute a crime, he shall be subject to administrative punishments according to law.


 
Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions


Article 52 The banking institutions as mentioned in this Law, refer to the commercial banks, urban credit cooperatives, rural credit cooperatives, and other financial institutions and policy banks absorbing public deposits.
 The provisions of this Law on banking institutions shall be applicable to the financial capital management companies, trust and investment companies, finance companies, and financial leasing companies, which are established within the territory of China, and other financial institutions established upon the approval of the banking regulatory organ of the State Council.
Article 53 The present Law shall be implemented as of its promulgation.
 
    Promulgated by The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on 2003-12-27 

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